Baltic dating eu
The treaty also granted the Baltic-German nobility within Estonia and Livonia the rights to self-government, maintaining their financial system, existing customs border, Lutheran religion, and the German language; this special position in the Russian Empire was reconfirmed by all Russian Tsars from Peter the Great to Alexander II.).Initially these were two governorates named after the largest cities: Riga and Reval (now Tallinn).During the course of the war it conquered all of the Swedish provinces on the Eastern Baltic coast.This acquisition was legalized by the Treaty of Nystad in which the Baltic Dominions were ceded to Russia.As a result, by 1561 the Livonian confederation had ceased to exist and its lands in modern Latvia and Southern Estonia became the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia and the Duchy of Livonia, which were vassals to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Osel island came under Danish rule and Northern Estonia became the Swedish Duchy of Estonia.
The majority of the crusaders and clergy were German and remained influential in Estonia and most of Latvia until the first half of the 20th century - Baltic Germans formed the backbone of the local gentry, and German served both as a lingua franca and for record-keeping.These newly acquired Swedish territories, as well as Ingria and Kexholm (now the western part of the Leningrad Oblast of Russia), became known as the Baltic Dominions (Swedish: ).Parts of the Duchy of Livonia that remained in the Commonwealth became Inflanty Voivodeship, which contributed to the modern Latgale region of Eastern Latvia becoming culturally distinct from the rest of Latvia as the German nobility lost its influence and the region remained Catholic just like Poland-Lithuania, while the rest of Latvia (and also Estonia) became Lutheran.This lasted until the 18th century, when the lands of all three modern countries were gradually absorbed into the Russian Empire.The Baltic states gained independence after the First World War, but were occupied by the Soviet Union during World War II , regaining independence in the early 1990s. Although there are several theories about its origin, most ultimately trace it to Indo-European root *bhel meaning white, fair.
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However the German philologist Georg Nesselmann in the middle of the 19th century substantiated the concept that Latvian, Lithuanian and Old Prussian belong to the same branch of the Indo-European languages, which he suggested to name as Baltic languages Poland and Lithuania, however, experienced not only a requirement to switch to Cyrillic but even a ban on print publications in the local languages and corporal punishment if students were caught speaking the local languages at school (see: Lithuanian book smugglers).